We learned about causative verbs, we studies that causative verbs are used when one thing or person causes another thing or person to do something. Or it expresses an action which is caused to happen. In this page you will learn about causative forms: Active and Passive Causative. In addition, click Active and Passive Voice Complete Rules, you might find this useful too.
Active and Passive Causative
There are two basic causative structures: an active form and a passive form. An active form is like an active, and the passive form is like a passive. Concentrate on the examples below.
- The teacher had the students do the assignment. (Active Form)
(The teacher caused the students to do the assignment).
- The teacher had the assignment done. (Passive Form)
(We don’t know exactly who did the assignment, so this is like a passive)
An active causative structure is like an active form and we can use the causative verbs: have, get, let, and make in active causative structures. Click here to learn about the usages of causative verbs.
Formula: subject + causative verb + agent + action verb + object.
- Ali had the carpenter fix the cupboard.
- He had the secretary call the customer.
- Her parents let her go to the party.
- My mother made me do the homework.
- The doctor got the patient to take the medicine.
The passive causative structure is like a passive form, usually it doesn’t have the agent and the action verb is in the past participle. Generally two causative verbs are used in passive causative; they are “Have and Get”. In addition, in this structure we describe a process or emphasize the action rather than who is doing the action.
Formula: Subject + have/get + object + past participle + (by agent)
- Ali had the cupboard fixed.
- He had the customer called.
- The doctor got the medicine taken.
- Zahra had her jacket cleaned.
- He got the software installed.
1. The verb “Get” is followed by full infinitive in active causative and in passive causative we use get + object rather than the full infinitive.
- I got Hussain to paint the house. (Active causative)
- I got the house painted. (Passive causative)
2. Moreover, modal verbs which express suggestion can be used with the passive causative structure.
- You should have your house cleaned.
- She will have the food cooked.
3. Need and want may be used in passive causative sentences. In some cases, the passive causative verb (had/got) may be dropped altogether.
- I need/want to have my house cleaned.
- I need/ want my house cleaned.