You might know that an adverb clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb in a sentence. There are different kinds of adverb clauses in English; in addition, the subordinators can distinguish the different types of adverb clauses. In this lesson you will learn how to use an adverb clause of contrast or concession.
Adverb clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction (such as after, although, as, because, even, if, once, so that, since, until, when, wherever while whatever etc.) and answers one of these four adverb questions: how, when, where or why.
- You may sit wherever you wish. (Modifies the verb sit and tells where)
- Ali and Ahmed look as though they have some exiting news for us. (Modifies the verb look, telling how Ali and Ahmed look)
- He is happy because she made an A. (Modifies the adjective happy, telling why he is happy)
- Jack can climb higher than I can. (Modifies the adjective higher, telling to what extent or how much higher Jack can climb)
- He talked carefully in order to appear fair. (Modifies the adverb carefully telling why he talked carefully)
Adverb Clause of Contrast/ Concession
These clauses are used to make two statements, one of which contrast with the other or make it seem surprising. They are introduced by the subordinating conjunctions like “although, though, even though, despite, in spite of, whereas, while, even if and however.
Though, Although and Even though
Though and although mean the same, we use them to contrast two opposite meanings (positive and negative) and it always gives unexpected results, we can use though in any part of the sentence but although can’t be used in the end of a sentence. When the though/although clause comes before the main clause, we usually put a comma at the end of the clause. When the main clause comes first, we don’t need to use a comma:
- Though/ although he has plenty of money, he doesn’t spend much.
- We enjoyed our camping holiday though/ although it rained every day.
- The exam was difficult. I think I did well, though.
Even though is a slightly stronger form of although.
- We decided to buy the house even though we didn’t really have enough money.
- You keep making that stupid noise even though I’ve asked you to stop three times.
- Even though the exam was easy, I failed.
Despite and in spite of
Despite and in spite of are prepositions which are used with phrase to show contrast and after them we use a noun or a pronoun.
- We enjoyed our camping holiday in spite of the rain.
- Despite the pain in his leg, he completed the marathon.
- Despite having all the necessary qualifications, they didn’t offer me the job.
- Despite/ in spite of his best efforts, they just could not succeed.
Whereas and while
We use whereas or while to contrast two opposite facts. We don’t matter negative or positive meaning.
- I like traveling by plane, while/ whereas my husband doesn’t.
- While there was no conclusive evidence, most people thought he was guilty.
Even if is used to emphasize that, although something may happen or may be true, it will not change a situation.
I would not tell you even if I knew.
Even if she survives, she’ll never fully recover.
However is used to introduce a statement that contrasts with or seems to contradict something that has been said previously.
- However you look at it, you can’t criticize that.
- He was feeling bad. He went to work, however, and tried to concentrate.