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New American StreamlineReading

New American Streamline Destinations Glossary Part (A)

New American Streamline Destinations Glossary Part A units (1-40). All difficult words of each units are explained with illustrations and parts of speech to be useful for students learning the book New American Streamline Destinations.

New American Streamline Destinations Glossary
New American Streamline Destinations Glossary

New American Streamline Destinations Glossary

Unit 1 (Arrivals)
Glad: (adj.) bringing joy; full of joy
I am very much glad to meet you once again after a long time.
Ages: (n) a very long time
You know I haven’t seen the kids for ages.
Manager: (n) a person who is in charge of running a business, a shop/store or a similar organization or part of one
The man with a black hat must be the manager of this firm.
Sales Manager: (n) a person who manages sales department of a business.
To buy good quality goods, I must personally meet the sales manager.
Financial Manager: (n) a person who manages finance of a business.
As he is good in economics, he can be the right person to be our financial manager.
Fare: (n) the money that you pay to travel by bus, plane, taxi, etc.
How much is the fare from Quetta to Karachi?

Unit 2 (Is Everything Ready?)
Rented: (adj.) that you pay rent for.
It is better to have your own house than being in a rented house.
Appearance: (n) an act of appearing in public, especially as a performer, politician, etc.
His appearance time and again on the stage has resulted in his popularity.
Production: (n) the process of growing or making food, goods or materials, especially large quantities
To sustain its economical growth, Pakistan needs to hasten its industrial production.
Subject: (n) a thing or person that is being discussed described or dealt with.
The subject of our tonight’s discussion is a leading political figure from PML (Q).
Greet: (v) to say hello to sb or to welcome them.
It’s too important to greet our guests before they are asked to express their viewpoints.
Origin: (n) the point from which sth starts; the cause of sth.
Scientists are too inquisitive to find out the origin of every thing they study.
Host: (n) a person who introduces and talks to guests on a television or radio show
Mr. Ali was our host in the Talk Show regarding law and order situation.
Backstage: (n) in the part of the theatre where the actors and artists get ready and wait to perform.
You first talk to audience, and then go to backstage.
Cue: (v) to give sb a signal so they know when to start doing sth.
You should not play national anthem unless I cue.
Tape: (v) to record sb/sth on tape using a special machine.
The speakers’ speeches must be taped in the program.
Studio: (n) a room where radio or television programs are recorded and broadcast from.
It is of good quality sound because it was recorded in the studio.
Director: (n) a person in charge of a film/movie or play who tells the actors and staff what to do.
The director of this film has gained enough fame after the release of his last film.
Limousine: (v) a large expensive comfortable car.
We prefer a limousine than a van as it is comfortable.

Unit 3 (This is Your Life!)
Imitate: (v) to copy the way a person speaks or behaves, in order to amuse people.
Go through the exercises and imitate you teacher.
Leading: (adj.) most important or most successful
Great Abdul Ali Mazari was a leading political figure.
Darling: (n) a way of addressing sb that you love.
Take care of yourself my darling.
Furious: (adj.) with great energy, or anger.
I found the director furious after the student entered in the office without permission.
Scared to death: (idiom) to be very much afraid of something.
You need not to take it easy. I am scared to death of them.
Furniture: (n) objects that can be moved, such as tables, chairs and beds that are put into a house or an office to make it suitable for living or working in.
Our institution has got the best quality furniture.
Recognize: (v) to know who sb is or what sth is when you see or hear them, because you have seen or heard them or it before.
I recognized him from his eyes.
Diploma: (n) a document showing that you have completed a course of study or part of your education.
Getting diploma would be hard nut to crack for the irregular students.
Daydream: (v) pleasant thoughts that make you forget about the present.
He takes it too easy. He must be daydreaming now.
Model: (n) a person whose job is to wear and show new styles of clothes and be photographed wearing them.
Have you ever captured any photograph with a model?

Unit 4 (The Louisville Rally)
Consist: (v) to have sth as the main or only part.
Our executive board consists of four members.
Average: (n) calculated by adding several amounts together, finding a total, and dividing the total by the number of amounts.
The average literacy rate is said to be 85% in Hazara people living in Quetta.
Fuel: (n) any material that produces heat or power, usually when it is burnt.
No compromise means adding fuel to the fire.
Economy: (n) the use of the something that is available in a way that avoids waste.
Prosperity of the people is directly proportional to their economy.
Competitor: (n) a person who takes part in a competition.
Both the competitors were announced to be equal.
Rally: (n) a race for motor vehicles over public roads.
Too many people participated to watch yesterday’s rally.
Estimate: (n) a judgment that you make without having the exact details or figures about the size, amount, cost, etc. of sth.
According to our estimate, Pakistan will face the most critical situation in coming year.
Dimension: (n) a measurement in space for example, the height, width or length of sth.
Could you please tell me the dimension of this cubic box?
Displacement: (n) the act of displacing sb/sth.
The engine’s displacement caused problem.
Route: (n) a way that you follow to get from one place to another.
There are different routes for getting to Australia.
Due: (adj.) caused by sb/sth.
Target killing is due to increase in fanaticism in this multinational city.
Maintain: (v) to make sth continue at the same level, standard, etc.
To maintain peace and security, we must disarm some militant groups.
Withdraw: (v) to move back or away from a place or situation.
He wanted to withdraw in the race because he was not feeling well.
Head: (v) to move in a particular direction.
There has always been a tendency of heading towards success.

Unit 5 (The Romance Connection)
Assignment:  Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
Financial: (adj.) analyst: (n) snorkeling: (n) acquainted: (adj.) watercolor: (n) hiking: (n) Faraway: (n) sight: (n) ancient: (adj.) ethnic: (adj.) adventure: (n)

Unit 6 (Getting a Job)
Include: (v) if one thing includes another, it has the second thing as one of its parts.
You should not include any controversial point in your speech.
Employer: (n) a person or company that pays people to work for them.
He is not a good employer. He often pays my money late.
Boutique: (n) a small shop/store that sells fashionable clothes or expensive gifts.
Have you ever bought any thing being the most expensive in boutique?
Salesperson: (n) a person whose job is to sell goods, for example, in a shop/store.
In order to be a good salesperson, first you should have good character.
Bilingual: (adj.) able to speak two languages equally well because you have used them since you were very young
Ali is a bilingual because he can speak English and Urdu very well.
Application: (n) a formal (often written) request for sth, such as a job, permission to do sth.
You won’t be granted leave unless you write an application.
Resume: (n) a written record of your education and employment that you send when you are applying for a job.
Resume is very important to be enclosed with your application.
Mature: (adj.) fully grown and developed.
He is mature enough to take part in politics.
Respond: (v) to give a spoken or written answer to sb/sth.
Respond to the questions you have just heard.
Qualification: (n) an exam that you have passed or a course of study that you have successfully completed.
To apply for the post of teaching, your qualification must be at least FA/FSc.
Requirement: (n) something that you need or want.
What would be the requirement of taking part in this football tournament?
Neatly: (adv.) tidy and in order; carefully done or arranged
The building was painted very neatly and cleanly.
Firmly: (adv.) in a strong or definite way.
I am determined to work here very firmly.
Panic: (v) to suddenly feel frightened so that you cannot think clearly and you say or do sth stupid, dangerous, etc.
You need not panic in critical time.
Slouch: (v) to stand, sit or move in a lazy way, often with your shoulders and head bent forward.
Indian soldiers slouched after four hour’s fire exchange.
Trainee: (n) a person who is being taught how to do a particular job.
We have enough trainees to go on with business smoothly.
Stationery: (n) special paper for writing letters on.
We should avoid wasting stationery.
Prospect: (n) the possibility that sth will happen.
There are some prospects that Pakistan will get isolated.
Advancement: (n) the process of helping sth to make progress or succeed.
We are determined to take our nation towards prosperity and advancement.
Brochure: (n) a small magazine or book containing pictures and information about sth.
For getting more information you should have a look to this brochure.
Computer Operator: (n) a person who operates computer.
He is not only a language teacher but also a computer instructor.
Expand: (v) to become greater in size, number or importance.
NASA is expanding its units rapidly.
Data Processing: (n) a series of actions that a computer performs on data to produce an OUTPUT.
Data processing of this system is much better than the system we were using last year.
Personnel Director: (n) a person who is in charge of hiring workers in a company.
You could ask personnel director if there is any job vacancy.
Delay: (v) to not do sth until a later time or to make sth happen at a later time.
Our result day is already delayed for the next week due to heavy rain.

Unit 7 (Battle of Sheridan Street)
Estimate: (v) a judgment that you make without having the exact details or figures about the size, amount, cost, etc. of sth.
Can you estimate the population of Pakistan in 2014?
Guard: (v) to protect property, places or people from attack or danger.
The man with the uniform over there is to guard the police officers.
Battle: (n) an argument or a struggle between people or groups of people.
The battle between these two tribes is still going on.
Project: (n) a planned piece of work that is designed to find information about sth, to produce sth new, or to improve sth.
A new project is expected to be signed for a highway in Hazara Town.
Resident: (n) a person who lives in a particular place or who has their home there.
You can’t get admission unless you are resident of Quetta
Relocate: (v) to move or to move sb/sth to a new place.
Our campus is soon going to be relocated to New Hazara Town.
Authority: (n) the people or an organization who have the power to make decisions or who have a particular area of responsibility in a country or region.
Our residential authority has advised the people to keep the area clean.
Official: (n) connected with the job of sb who is in a position of authority.
We have many government officials who have important role in decision making.
Refuse: (v) to say that you will not do sth that sb has asked you to do.
Their appeal as asylum seekers was refused for the third time.
Demolish: (v) to pull or knock down a building.
Many buildings were demolished during Israelis’ air raids.
Income: (adj.) the money that a person, a region, a country, etc. earns from work, from investing money from business, etc.
Government has recently announced to increase tax on monthly income more than $5000.
Housing: (n) the job of providing houses, flats/apartments, etc. for people to live in.
Housing scheme has started by the government of Balochistan.
Widow: (n) a woman whose husband has died and who has not married again.
The unprecedented flood in Pakistan left behind thousands of widows.
Pet: (n) an animal that you have at home for pleasure, rather than one that is kept for work or food.
No pet is allowed to bring in the hotel.
Intend: (v) to have a plan, result or purpose in your mind when you do sth.
The writer clearly intends his readers to identify with the main character.
Stubborn: (adj.) determined not to change your opinion or attitude.
It is too challenging to satisfy a stubborn matron.
Convince: (v) to persuade sb to do sth; encourage.
You can easily convince him by your logical reasons.
Intention: (n) what you intend or plan to do; your aim.
May I know what your intention is regarding this firm?
Occupied: (adj.) being used by sb.
Construction is going on in the occupied territory of Palestinians by Israelis.
Hillside: (n) the side of a hill (an area of land that is higher than the land around it).
That hut over there on the hillside looks very fantastic.
Cautious: (adj.) being careful about what you say or do, especially to avoid danger or mistakes.
You need to be very cautious when discussing any religious topic.
Approach: (n) a way of doing or thinking about sth such as a problem or a task.
The school has decided to adopt a different approach to discipline.
Balance: (n) a situation in which different things exist in equal, correct or good amounts
There must be balance between preys and consumers.
Threaten: (v) to say that you will cause trouble, hurt sb, etc. if you do not get what you want.
He would threaten us to death if we didn’t give him ransom.

Unit 8 (Sending Card)
Graduation: (n) the act of successfully completing a university degree, or studies at an American HIGH SCHOOL.
He is just busy in designing a graduation card.
Promotion: (n) a move to a more important job or rank in a company.
Promotion is based on merit.
Delighted: (adj.) very pleased; happy.
We will be very much delighted to receive you at the airport.
Occasion: (n) a particular time when sth happens; a special event, ceremony or celebration.
I want some good quotations for this occasion.
Easter: (n) (in the Christian religion) a Sunday in March or April when Christians remember the death of Christ and his return to life.
Easter is getting near, we need to have our party before March.
Halloween: (n) the night of 31st October when it was believed in the past that dead people appeared from their graves, and which is now celebrated in the US, Canada and Britain.
Special preparation is needed to celebrate Halloween.
Linen: (n) a fabric made from FLAX (a plant with blue flowers), used to make high quality clothes, sheets.
I prefer clothes in cotton than ones in linen.
China: (n) white clay which is baked and used for making delicate cups, plates, etc.
These cups are made of China (clay).
Silver: (n) a chemical element. Silver is a greyish-white precious metal used for making coins, jewelry.
Silver is not as expensive as gold is.
Jade: (n) a hard stone that is usually green and is used in making ornaments and jewelry.
Jades are used as jewelries.
Ruby: (n) a dark red precious stone.
Rubies are usually used as beads for rings in Afghanistan.
Sapphire: (n) a clear, bright blue precious stone.
Sapphire can be found in Afghanistan.
Emerald: (n) a rare valuable stone, such as a diamond, that is used in jewelry.
Emerald is a precious stone.
Diamond: (n) a clear colorless precious stone of pure CARBON, the hardest substance known. Diamonds are used in jewelry and also in industry, especially for cutting glass.
Diamond is a hard material used for different purposes i.e. fashion, cutting of glass etc.
Anxious: (adj.) feeling worried or nervous.
I am very anxious about the result of this treaty.
League: (n) a group of sports teams who all play each other to earn points and find which team is best.
Hazara Town Football League has qualified for semi final.
Coach: (n) somebody who trains a person or team in sport.
Success of a sports team depends on the guidance of coach.
Condolence: (n) sympathy that you feel for sb when a person in their family or that they know well has died.
President of Pakistan expressed his sympathy and condolence.

Unit 9 (Marriage Counseling)
Advise: (v) to tell sb what you think they should do in a particular situation.
My father advised me to be honest and confident.
Advice: (n) an opinion or a suggestion about what sb should do in a particular situation.
This is an advice for the teachers to be strict but flexible.
Argue: (v) to speak angrily to sb because you disagree with them.
Don’t argue with somebody whom you think gets sensitive quickly.
Messy: (adj.) dirty and/or untidy.
The house will look very messy if you don’t keep everything on its place.
Embarrass: (v) to make sb feel shy; to cause problems or difficulties for sb.
Don’t try to embarrass somebody on his/her mistakes.
Resent: (v) to feel bitter or angry about sth, especially because you feel it is unfair.
What he said resented his temper.
Counselor: (n) a person who has been trained to advise people with problems, especially personal problems.
He told me to refer to the counselor for the solution of my problems.
Separately: (adv.) as a separate person or thing; not together.
His secretary told me that I could meet the minister but separately.
Session: (n) a formal meeting or series of meetings of a court of law, a parliament, etc.
It’s going to be the fourth session of District Advisory Counsel.
Persuade: (v) to make sb do sth by giving them good reasons for doing it.
We could finally persuade them to participate in the game.
Inconsiderate: (adj.) not giving enough thought to other people’s feelings or needs.
He was accused of being very inconsiderate.
Expect: (v) to think or believe that sth will happen or that sb will do sth.
We expect our national team to win this match.
Counsel: (n) advice, especially given by older people or experts; a piece of advice.
We really learnt many things from their counsel.
Couple: (n) two people or things.
Some meters ahead you can find the statues of a couple killed in a bomb explosion.
Forbid: (v) to order sb not to do sth; to order that sth must not be done.
Islam forbids every single person from backbites.
Apron: (n) a piece of clothing worn over the front of the body.
It’s good to wear an apron while cooking and distributing food.

Unit 10 (At Home with the Baldwins)
Grade: (n) (in the US school system) one of the levels in a school with children of similar age.
In USA children of the same grade are seen to be of almost the same age.
Cereal: (n) food made from the grain of cereals, often eaten for breakfast with milk.
There are different kinds of food made from cereal.
Turkey: (n) a large bird that is often kept for its meat.
You can find almost every kind of bird in our garden except Turkey.
Tuna: (n) a large sea fish that is used for food.
It’s advisable to have tuna once every two weeks.
Hamper: (n) a large basket with a lid, especially one used to carry food in.
You have to use hamper for delivering food.
Laundry: (n) the process or the job of washing clothes, sheets, etc.
Don’t forget to do the laundry before I return from work.
Spaghetti: (n) PASTA in the shape of long thin sticks that look like string when they are cooked.
I have newly learnt the recipe for cooking delicious spaghetti.
Favor: (n) a thing that you do to help sb.
It would be unjust to announce the statement in his favor.
Chore: (n) a task that you do regularly.
He is given the chore of delivering the letters.
Parenting: (n) the process of caring for your child or children.
Our children need good parenting.
Contemporary: (adj.) belonging to the same time; belonging to the present time.
The pain in his chest was contemporary.
Lawyer: (n) a person who is trained and qualified to adv.ise people about the law and to represent them in a court of law.
He, who knows law , is known as lawyer.
Meatball: (n) a small ball of finely chopped meat, usually eaten hot with a sauce.
Meatballs were so delicious that I could not stop eating.
Karate: (n) a Japanese system of fighting in which you use your hands and feet as weapons.
I have newly gotten admission in karate.
Terrific: (adj.) excellent; wonderful.
Students of our institution had terrific performance.
Errand: (n) a job that you do for sb that involves going somewhere to take a message, to buy sth, delivers goods, etc.
No job is as tough as accepting errand.

Unit 11 (Sounding Polite)
Syllable: (n) any of the units into which a word is divided, containing a vowel sound and usually one or more consonants.
Beautiful is a word, which consists of more than two syllable sounds.
Expression: (n) things that people say write or do in order to show their feelings, opinions and ideas.
Tone is the manner of our expression.
Freezing: (adj.) extremely cold.
This freezing temperature will continue for some more days in Quetta.
Lend: (v) to give money to sb on condition that they pay it back over a period of time.
I could not ask him any more because he has already lent me too much money.
Wonder: (v) used as a polite way of asking a question or asking sb to do sth.
I wonder why the government is so reluctant to maintain peace and security.
Pea: (n) a small round green seed, eaten as a vegetable.
Pea is a kind of seed enrich with multi vitamins.
Cornflakes: (n) small crisp yellow pieces of crushed MAIZE, usually eaten with milk and sugar for breakfast.
Using too many cornflakes increases glucose.
Pasta: (n) spaghetti; an Italian food made from flour, eggs and water, formed into different shapes.
I love to eat pasta in my breakfast.
Cent: (n) a coin and unit of money worth 1% of the main unit of money in many countries, for example of the US dollar.
A hundred cents equals to one dollar.
Wallet: (n) a small flat folding case made of leather or plastic used for keeping paper money.
My wallet is missing; somebody must have picked my pocket.
Rack: (n) a piece of equipment, usually made of metal or wooden bars, that is used for holding things or for hanging things on.
We need a rack in our office to hang something on.
Communicate: (v) to exchange information, news, ideas, etc. with sb.
Language is a means through which you can communicate.
Stress: (n) pressure or worry caused by the problems in sb’s life.
Mr. Ali had stress when he went to deliver his speech for the first time.
Intonation: (n) the rise and fall of the voice in speaking.
Intonation plays an important role in understanding a message.
Tone: (n) the PITCH (= how high or low a sound is) of a syllable in speaking.
The tone of the words can change the meaning of a sentence.
Stuffy: (adj.) warm in an unpleasant way and without enough fresh air.
We are feeling stuffy in here.

Unit 12 (A Trip to Los Angeles)
Briefcase: (n) a flat case used for carrying papers and documents.
I need to buy a briefcase for my documents.
Coin: (n) a small flat piece of metal used as money.
A coin was needed for the toss.
Pocketful: (n) the amount a pocket holds.
To do shopping for ladies, you must have pocketful money.
Headquarters: (n) a place from which an organization or a military operation is controlled.
Headquarters ordered the military to start operation in South Waziristan.
Kit: (n) a set of tools or equipment that you use for a particular purpose.
Everybody was equipped with his/her own kit and went for picnic.
Tag: (n) a small piece of paper, plastic, etc. attached to sth to identify it or give information about it.
We don’t know who this bag belongs to as it hasn’t any tag.
Inn: used in the names of many pubs, hotels and restaurants.
Could you show a family inn here please?

Unit 13 (Flying to Los Angeles)
Altitude: (n) the height above sea level.
Our plane is at altitude of 3290 meters now.
Turbulence: (n) a situation in which there is a lot of sudden change, confusion, disagreement and sometimes violence.
We experienced severe turbulence during the flight.
Approach: (n) movement nearer to sb/sth in distance or time.
He accompanied me to the ministry of education because I didn’t have approach to minister.
Beverage: (n) any type of drink except water.
It’s advisable to use water than using too much beverage.
Soda: (n) a sweet FIZZY drink (= a drink with bubbles) made with soda water, fruit flavor and sometimes ice cream.
My little brother loves to drink soda.
Lime: (n) a small green fruit, like a lemon, with a lot of sour juice, used in cooking and in drinks; the juice of this fruit.
Lime is said to be very expensive in Karachi.
Complimentary: (adj.) given free of charge.
Complimentary tickets were given to the people for the show.
Lasagna: (n) large flat pieces of PASTA(an Italian food made from flour, eggs and water, formed into different shapes)
The food on the table is an Italian dish made from layers of lasagna.
Peanut: (n) nut that grows underground in a thin shell.
They were eating peanut when we enter the class.
Questionnaire: (n) a written list of questions that are answered by a number of people so that information can be collected from the answers.
Each passenger was given a questionnaire to answer the given questions.
Survey: (n) an investigation of the opinions, behavior, etc. of a particular group of people, which is usually done by asking them questions.
They had a traffic survey before we arrived.
Rental: (n) the amount of money that you pay to use sth for a particular period of time.
It was a substantial amount of rental paid to the owner.
Corporate: (adj.) connected with a corporation (a large business company).
Our corporate is expended to have its branches in some major cities.
Board: (v) to get on a ship, train, plane, bus, etc.
Passengers are informed to board in the next 10 minutes.
Schedule: (n) timetable; a plan that lists all the work that you have to do and when you must do each thing.
A proper schedule is very important for our daily activities.
Departure: (n) a plane, train, etc. leaving a place at a particular time; the act of leaving a place.
Do you remember your departure date from Pakistan?
Prior: (adj.) happening or existing before sth else or before a particular time.
Prior to discussing the major points, I need to introduce myself first.
Bumpy: (adj.) (of a surface) not even; rough.
Better we change our route because this is very bumpy.
Cruise: (n) a journey by sea.
Our cruise will take more than a month.
Discount: (n) an amount of money that is taken off the usual cost of sth.
Our firm has always had discount with our regular customers.

Unit 14 (Money)
Trillion: (adj.) 1000000000000; one million, million.
Pakistan is 1000000000000$ in debt since 2005.
Teller: (n) a person whose job is to receive and pay out money in a bank.
You can get your money through teller.
Withdrawal: (n) the act of taking an amount of money out of your bank account.
You cannot withdraw any money unless you bring your last withdrawal receipt.
Catalog: (n) a complete list of items, for example of things that people can look at or buy.
Ladies do not simply select any design for their cloth unless they see the catalog.
Courier: (n) a person or company whose job is to take packages or important papers somewhere.
Our courier is not back yet from the post office.
Delivery: (n) the act of taking goods, letters, etc. to the people they have been sent to.
Please pay for goods on delivery.
Treasury: (n) the government department that controls public money.
Treasury is going to remain off for one more week.
Slang: (n) very informal words and expressions that is more common in spoken language.
The teacher told his students to check slang words in their dictionaries.
Dispute: (n) an argument or a disagreement between two people.
We ourselves can find out the solution of this dispute.
Loon: (n) a person who has strange ideas or who behaves in a strange way.
I don’t know what this loon means.
Loony: (adj.) crazy.
He behaved as if he was loony.
Expiration: (n) an ending of the period of time when an official document can be used, or when an agreement is valid.
The expiration/expiry date should be checked before something is bought.

Unit 15 (Money, Money, Money)
Assignment: Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
Bargaining: (n) Flea Market: (n) Worth: (adj.) Buck: (n) Depression: (n) Afford: (v) Wrap: (v) Overdrawn: (adj.) Matress: (n) Pillow: (n) Gambling: (n) Bet: (v) Debt: (n) Owe: (v)

Unit 16 (Inside Story)
Estate: (n) a large area of land, usually in the country, that is owned by one person or family.
To sell a state, we must refer to a property dealer.
Suburb: (n) an area where people live that is outside the centre of a city.
People don’t like to live in suburb because there aren’t enough facilities there.
Kidnap: (v) to take sb away illegally and keep them as a prisoner, especially in order to get money or sth else for returning them.
No one can be kidnapped if government does not support some militant groups.
Executive: (n) a person who has an important job as a manager of a company or an organization.
Executive Board is made to decide about any matter of our Society.
Apparently: (adv.) according to what you have heard or read; according to the way sth appears.
He was apparently tortured by some unknown gunmen.
Pond: (n) a small area of still water, especially one that is artificial.
You are not allowed to go fishing in this pond.
Comment: (n) something that you say or write which gives an opinion on or explains sb/sth.
First and foremost we would like to hear Mr. Karzai’s comment on law and order situation.
Founder: (n) a person who starts an organization, institution, etc. or causes sth to be built.
Martyred Abdul Ali Mazari is the founder of “Hezb-e-Wahdat.
Spokesperson: (n) a person who speaks on behalf of a group or an organization.
The foreign spokesperson has just announced the emergency visit of foreign minister.
Suspect: (n) a person who is suspected of a crime or of having done sth wrong
According to police department, no suspect is arrested yet.
Press Conference: (n) a meeting at which sb talks to a group of journalists in order to answer their questions or to make an official statement.
The main issue discussed in press conference was target killing in some major cities of Pakistan.
Tunnel: (v) to dig a tunnel under or through the ground.
We don’t have budget left for tunneling two more hills.
Fence: (n) a structure made of wood or wire supported with posts that is put between two areas of land as a BOUNDARY, or around a garden/yard, field, etc. to keep animals in.
We should extend the fence so that we can place some more animals.
Remote: (adj.) far away from places where other people live.
Local government has totally forgotten the remote areas of this city.
Camp: (n) a place where people live temporarily in tents.
Flood affected people didn’t have enough camps to live in.
Log: (n) a thick piece of wood that is cut from or has fallen from a tree.
I slept like a log.
Berry: (n) a small fruit that grows on a bush.
There are several types of berries, some of them are edible.
Poison: (n) a substance that causes death or harm if it is swallowed or absorbed into the body.
Poison, being lethal substance, is not allowed to be kept at home except laboratories.
Ivy: (n) a climbing plant, especially one with dark green shiny leaves with five points.
I have heard Ivy but I have never seen in my life.
Rash: (n) an area of red spots on a person’s skin, caused by an illness or a reaction to sth.
I received rashes on my hands after being in bushes for two hours.
Give up: to stop trying to do sth.
You should not give up your struggle unless you gain what you want.
Pursue: (v) to do sth or try to achieve sth over a period of time.
We intend to pursue this policy with determination.
Surrender: (v) to admit that you have been defeated and want to stop fighting; to allow yourself to be caught, taken prisoner, etc.
He rebel soldiers were forced to surrender.
Ransom: (n) money that is paid to sb so that they will set free a person who is being kept as a prisoner by them.
Kidnappers were arrested before receiving the ransom.
Bruise: (n) a blue, brown or purple mark that appears on the skin after sb has fallen, been hit, etc.
He received a bruise on his left eye.
Treatment: (v) something that is done to cure an illness or injury, or to make sb look and feel good.
Police asked me whether I wanted the patient’s treatment or wanted to case.
Various: (adj.) several different; having many different features.
In a multi cultural state, someone has to cope with various cultures and traditions.
Wound: (n) an injury to part of the body, especially one in which a hole is made in the skin using a weapon.
A Pakistani soldier received a serious wound during South Waziristan operation.
Injure: (v) to harm yourself or sb else physically, especially in an accident.
A bomb blast in Karachi killed 5 people and injured 10 people.
Ordeal: (n) a difficult or unpleasant experience.
Have you ever had an ordeal of doing something wrong in your class?
Abruptly: (adv.) suddenly and unexpectedly, often in an unpleasant way
The turbulence ended abruptly when they reached Quetta safe and sound.
Commissioner: (n) the head of a particular police force; chief.
Commissioner of Quetta city has failed to maintain law and order situation.

Unit 17 (Preferences)
Subtitle: (n.) words that translate what is said in a film/movie into a different language and appear on the screen at the bottom.
ESL learners can easily understand a movie with subtitle.
Mushroom: (n) a FUNGUS (any plant without leaves) with a round flat head and short stem. Many mushrooms can be eaten.
Some mushrooms are edible while some of them can be toxic.
Pea: (n) a small round green seed, eaten as a vegetable.
My mother cooks very delicious pea.
Preference: (n) a greater interest in or desire for sb/sth than sb/sth else.
To study whether in USA or UK depends on your preference.
Country: (n) any area outside towns and cities, with fields, woods, farms, etc.
It will take a long time to get used to working in a country.
Baggy: (adj.) fitting loosely; not tight.
My friend likes to wear baggy pants.
Slim: (adj.) thin, in a way that is attractive.
She is thin but seems to be very slim.
Beige: (adj.) light yellowish-brown in color.
His complexion was beige.

Burgundy: (adj.) a dark red color.
I was surprised to hear Ali telling burgundy his favorite color.
Jazz: (n) a type of music with strong rhythms.
Jazz music was originally created by African American musicians.
Jeans: (n) trousers/pants made of strong cotton.
Do you want to have your trousers in jeans?
Rustler: (n) a person who steals farm animals.
Ali was announced to be a rustler.
Fair: (adj.) acceptable and appropriate in a particular situation.
The result of speech competition was totally fair.
Split: (v) to divide, or to make a group of people divide, into smaller groups that have very different opinions.
We should not let our nation split into different groups.

Unit 18 (Earth Day)
Ought to: used to say what is the right thing to do.
We ought to attend our class before going to the program.
Protect: (v) to make sure that sb/sth is not harmed, injured, damaged, etc.
It is we to protect our culture against western cultural domination.
Tropical: (adj.) coming from, found in or typical of the tropics.
Countries situated in tropical regions of the globe are very hot.
Insect: (n) any small creature with six legs and a body divided into three parts.
Some insects are harmful for crops.
Pharmaceutical: (n) a drug or medicine.
One of these pharmaceuticals comes from herbs.
Conservation: (n) the act of preventing sth from being lost, wasted, damaged or destroyed.
Everyone should play his/her role in conservation of natural environment.
Wildlife: (n) animals, birds, insects, etc. that is wild and live in a natural environment.
We should save and care for all the wildlife on the earth.
Species: (n) a group into which animals, plants, etc.
Species are able to breed with each other and produce their offspring.
Celebration: (n) a special event that people organize in order to celebrate sth.
Celebration of New Year will go for two weeks.
Mammal: (n) any animal that gives birth to live babies, not eggs, and feeds its young on milk.
All mammals are cold blooded animals.
Consume: (v) to use sth, especially fuel, energy or time.
The more we consume power the more will be the charges of the utility bill.
Stream: (v) a small narrow river.
There is a small stream connecting to the river.
Lake: (n) a large area of water that is surrounded by land.
We can use lakes for irrigation purposes.
Treat: (v) to behave in a particular way towards sb/sth.
We should treat each other in a very polite manner.
Drain: (n) a pipe that carries away dirty water or other liquid waste.
To keep our area clean and beautiful, we must make the drains underground.
Gasoline: (n) Petrol
Cars consuming less gasoline have increased in price since last week.
Conserve: (v) to use as little of sth as possible so that it lasts a long time.
We should try our level best to conserve our natural resources.
Use up: to use all of sth so that there is none left.
The athlete used up all the dishes on the table
Give off: to produce sth such as a smell, heat, light, etc.
It smells very awful; something must be giving off smell.
Assistance: (n) help or support.
We won’t be able to do it unless we have your full assistance.
Amphibian: (n) any animal that can live both on land and in water. Amphibians have cold blood and skin without scales.
Tortoise is a kind of amphibian which can live both on land and in water.
Reptile: (n) any animal that has cold blood and skin covered in scales, and that lays eggs.
Crawling on belly is one of the characteristics of reptiles.
Pound: (n) the unit of money in Britain.
Pound is a unit of money in United Kingdom.
Pollution: (n) substances that make air, water, soil, etc. dirty.
Due to air pollution, everybody is suffering from different types of diseases.
Mileage: (n) the distance that a vehicle has travelled, measured in miles.
For the purpose of getting from one place to another, one had to cover long mileage.
Emit: (v) to send out sth such as light, heat, sound, gas, etc.
Vehicles emitting smokes should not be allowed in cities.
Alternative: (n) a thing that you can choose to do or have out of two or more possibilities.
We must have an alternative if our ongoing project fails.
Solar: (adj.) using the sun’s energy.
Solar energy is directly obtained from sun.
Methane: (n) a gas without color or smell, that burns easily and is used as fuel.
We use methane gas for cooking and heating purposes.
Unit 19 (Night Flight)
Moan: (n) a long deep sound, usually expressing unhappiness.
The moan out of the room disturbed the whole block.
Groan: (n) long deep sound made when sb/sth groans (groan=to make a long deep sound because you are annoyed, upset or in pain, or with pleasure)
His groan did not let me go asleep.
Unconscious: (adj.) unaware.
Unfortunately, majority of our youths are unconscious regarding their future.
Severe: (adj.) extremely bad or serious.
I was feeling sever pain at my knee.
Poisoning: (n) the fact or state of having swallowed or absorbed poison.
At least 10000 children are involved in accidental poisonings every year.
Lead: (v) to go with or in front of a person or an animal to show the way or to make them go in the right direction.
There were some three persons who were leading the procession.
Cockpit: (n) an enclosed area in a plane, boat or racing car where the pilot or driver sits.
He must have been in a very comfortable cockpit.
Jammed: (adj.) not able to move.
All the vehicles jammed due to rush hour.
Revive: (v) to become, or to make sb/sth become, conscious or healthy and strong again.
Cultural organizations should work to revive our old traditions.
Panic: (n) a sudden feeling of great fear that cannot be controlled and prevents you from thinking clearly.
They were all in a state of panic.
Overhear: (v) to hear, especially by accident, a conversation in which you are not involved.
We talked very quietly so as not to be overheard.
Slightly: (adv.) a little.
We adopted slightly more easy techniques.
Copilot: (n) a second pilot who helps the main pilot in an aircraft.
His airplane has the capacity of two persons: pilot and copilot.
Altitude: (n) the height above sea level.
Can anyone tell me the altitude of Quetta city?
Smooth: (adj.) completely flat and even.
The water was as smooth as glass.
Tray: (n) a flat piece of wood, metal or plastic with raised edges, used for carrying or holding things, especially food.
Would you please pass the salt on the gray tray over there?
Galley: (n) a long flat ship with sails, usually rowed by slaves or criminals.
Galleys used to be used by ancient Greeks or Romans in war.
Aisle: (n) a passage between rows of seats in a church, theatre, train, etc.
Drinks and beverages are in the next aisle.
Violently: (adv.) with great energy or strong movement.
We saw a documentary in which a lion attacked a deer violently and caught it.
Slumped: (adj.) sitting with your body leaning forward, for example because you are asleep or unconscious.
He looked in a slumped condition in the third aisle.
Sob: (v) to cry noisily, taking sudden, sharp breaths.
She was sobbing her heart out while leaving his friend.
Descent: (n) an action of coming or going down.
We can observe a remarkable descent in war crime since 2005.
Tremendous: (adj.) very great.
We can find tremendous participation and services of Hazaras in 1965 War.
Tarmac: (n) a black material used for making road surfaces, that consists of small stones mixed with TAR
Tarmac was used in Kirani Road leading to Double Road.
Runway: (n) a long narrow strip of ground with a hard surface that an aircraft takes off from and lands on.
Runway of the planes should be clean and entirely free.
Bounce: (v) to jump up and down on sth.
If you bounce this ball, it will soon get lost.
Circling: (v) to move in a circle, especially in the air.
The cyclone was circling here for a very long time.
Gauge: (n) an instrument for measuring the amount or level of sth.
We are going to have an experiment by the help of gauge and a ball bearing.
Horizon: (n) the furthest that you can see, where the sky seems to meet the land or the sea.
The sun set below the horizon.
Screech: (v) to make a loud high unpleasant sound; to say sth using this sound.
I don’t like anyone screeching hear.
Bump: (n) the action or sound of sth hitting a hard surface.
We suddenly heard a bump while taking tea on the balcony.

Unit 20 (The Antique Dealer)
Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
1. Pursue: (v) __________________________________________.
2. Ordeal: (n) __________________________________________.
3. Beige: (adj.) _________________________________________.
4. Give up: ___________________________________________.
5. Abruptly: (adv.) ______________________________________.
Match the 10 words in Column I with the definition in Column II.
_____1. Bump a) using the sun’s energy
_____2. Circling b) the action or sound of sth hitting a hard surface
_____3. Tremendous c) extremely bad or serious
_____4. Sob d) to move in a circle, especially in the air
_____5. Violently e) very great
_____6. Jammed f) to cry noisily, taking sudden, sharp breaths
_____7. Severe g) not able to move
_____8. Solar h) with great energy or strong movement
_____9. Assistance j) unaware
_____10. Unconscious k) help or support
Make your own sentences for the given words below
1. Imitation: (n)_______________________________________.
2. Landscape: (n)______________________________________.
3. Antique: (adj.)______________________________________.
4. Flea Market: (n)_____________________________________.
5. Signature: (n) ______________________________________.
6. Trick: (n)___________________________________________.
7. Dealer: (n) _________________________________________.
8. Fair: (adj.) _________________________________________.
9. Fortune: (n)_________________________________________.
10. Honey: (n) _________________________________________.

Unit 21 (Noisy Neighbors)
Racket: (n) a loud unpleasant noise.
The whole block couldn’t sleep because of their racket.
Shovel: (n) a tool with a long handle and a broad blade with curved edges, used for moving earth, snow, sand, etc.
They must have been throwing sand with the shovel.
Vase: (n) a container made of glass, etc., used for holding cut flowers or as an ornament.
I cannot stop buying this beautiful vase.
Bury: (v) to place a dead body in a grave.
How can we bury this man without informing his family?
Backyard: (n) the whole area behind and belonging to a house, including an area of grass and the garden.
It will look so beautiful if we place some vases with flowers in the backyard.
Hamster: (n) an animal like a large mouse, with large cheeks for storing food. Hamsters are often kept as pets.
The animal that I hate in my life is not any other, but hamster.
Clean up: the process of removing dirt.
All the people participated in All Hazara Town Clean Up Day.
Disgusting: (adj.) extremely unpleasant.
The incident was the most disgusting incident ever in the history.
Sleep like a log: to sleep very well.
Being very tired, I slept like a log last night.

Unit 22 (A Sparkling Camp)
Lounge: (n) a public room in a hotel, club, etc. for waiting or relaxing in.
I was too early for my flight so I waited in lounge for an hour.
Motto: (n) a short sentence or phrase that expresses the aims and beliefs of a person, a group, an institution, etc. and is used as a rule of behavior.
Motto portrays the aims and objectives of an organization.
Straighten up: to make sth neat and tidy.
We need to straighten up the hall before our guests get here.
Canoe: (n) a light narrow boat which you move along in the water with a PADDLE.
Tourists are not allowed to travel in canoes because of the security risks.
Camp: (n) a place where people live temporarily in tents.
Thousands of Afghan refugees are living in camps across the world.
Craft: (n) an activity involving a special skill at making things with your hands.
We should preserve traditional crafts like basket-weaving.
Duty Roster: (n) a person who makes a list of people’s names and assigns the jobs that they have to do at a particular time.
If you don’t know what to do, you can ask the duty roster.
Sparkling: (adj.) interesting and amusing.
Christmas day was the most sparkling event of the year 2010.

Unit 23 (A Funny Thing Happened to Me…)
Stool: (n) a seat with legs but with nothing to support your back or arms.
You are to be very careful while working on stool.
Avoid: (v) to prevent sth bad from happening.
We should avoid medicines from children’s reach.
Dunk: (v) to put food quickly into liquid before eating it.
Old people usually dunk their food before eating.
Fold: (v) to bend sth, especially paper or fabric, so that one part lies on top of another part.
Remember not to fold your original documents.
Bargain: (v) to discuss prices, conditions, etc. with sb in order to reach an agreement that is satisfactory.
We bargained for a long time but could not reduce the price.
Counter: (n) a long flat surface over which goods are sold or business is done in a shop/store, bank, etc.
I put my wallet on the counter but it is missing now.
Doughnut: (n) a small cake made of fried dough, usually in the shape of a ring or round and filled with jam/jelly, fruit, cream, etc.
Please ask receptionist if we can get doughnut from this bakery.
Glance: (v) to look quickly at sth/sb.
If we have a glance on our history, we will learn many things.
Glare: (v) to look at sb/sth in an angry way.
I was not only surprised when I saw him glaring at me.
Pretend: (v) to behave in a particular way, in order to make other people believe sth that is not true.
Ali pretended to be an actor in front of us.
Protest: (v) to say or do sth to show that you disagree with or disapprove of sth.
Poor people protested against the government..
Resist: (v) to refuse to accept sth and try to stop it from happening.
A militant group resisted police for about half an hour.
Assorted: (adj.) of various different sorts.
The meat is served with salad and assorted vegetables.
Conservative: (adj.) opposed to great or sudden social change; showing that you prefer traditional styles and values.
They are the conservative people of the society.
Relieved: (adj.) feeling happy because sth unpleasant has stopped or has not happened; showing this.
Everybody felt relieved when the airplane landed safely.
Typical: (n) having the usual qualities or features of a particular type of person, thing or group.
He has dressed up a typical Pakistani dress.
Casual: (adj.) not showing much care or thought.
Police are carrying on a casual investigation.
Underneath: (prep) under or below sth else.
While pulling up the robe, the hook stuck underneath stone.

Unit 24 (Murder in New Orleans)
Butler: (n) the main male servant in a large house.
The butler was searching for the boy.
Chief: (n) a person with a high rank or the highest rank in a company or an organization:
They had meeting with police chiefs.
Executive: (n) a person who has an important job as a manager of a company or an organization.
His father was a sales executive in our company.
Den: (n) the hidden home of some types of wild animal:
They were all found in lion’s den.
Doorway: (n) an opening into a building or a room, where the door is:
She stood in the doorway for a moment before going in.
Gambler: (n) a person who gambles; a person who puts his money on risk.
He was a compulsive gambler.
Heir: (n) a person who has the legal right to receive sb’s property, money or title when that person dies:
We can hardly ever be heir to a large fortune.
Mansion: (n) a large impressive house
They all were sitting in the mansion when you came.
Playboy: (n) a rich man who spends his time enjoying himself.
His uncle is a playboy.
Reputation: (n) he opinion that people have about what sb/sth is like, based on what has happened in the past:
They were all trying to build a reputation.
Rifle: (n) a gun with a long BARREL which you hold to your shoulder to fire.
They were all carrying rifles with themselves.
Scandal: (n) behavior or an event that people think is morally or legally wrong.
There has been no hint of scandal during his time in office.
Statement: (n) something that you say or write that gives information or an opinion:
Are the following statements true or false?
Collapse: (n) a sudden failure of sth, such as an institution, a business or a course of action:
The collapse of law and order in the area.
Inherit: (v) to receive money, property, etc. from sb when they die:
She inherited a fortune from her father.
Unit 25 (Murder in New Orleans)
Motive: (n) a reason for doing sth.
Do you have any motive for joining this political party?
Alibi: (n) evidence that proves that a person was in another place at the time of a crime and so could not have committed it.
He can present alibi in court that he is totally innocent.
Evidence: (n) the facts, signs or objects that make you believe that sth is true.
You will remain imprisoned as long as you don’t present any evidence.
Weird: (adj.) unusual or different; not normal.
Situation seems to be weird after he is announced to be convicted.
Detective: (n) a person, especially a police officer, whose job is to examine crimes and catch criminals.
You cannot go in unless you are checked by the detective at the entrance.

Unit 26 (Call-in You’re on the air)
Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
Ridiculous: (adj) Coordination: (n) Construction: (n) Alternate: (n)
Maintain: (v) Council: (n) Representative: (n)Route: (n) Sanitation: (n)
Passionate: (adj) Ruin: (v)

Unit 27 (Making a Complaint)
Arithmetic: (n) the type of mathematics that deals with the adding, multiplying, etc. of numbers.
Arithmetic is the basic calculation in mathematics.
Brand: (adj) new.
I want to buy a brand new car.
Function: (v) to work in the correct way.
Check if the engine is functioning well.
Proof: (v) information that shows that sth is true.
Einstein, who was a well-known scientist, proofed that E=m(c square).
Purchase: (v) to buy sth.
You will be given 30% discount if you purchase more than 10,000 rupees.
Refund: (v) to give sb their money back.
You won’t be refunded once you have paid the money.
Appreciate: (v) to be grateful for sth that sb has done; to welcome sth.
Our director appreciated first position holders for their hard work.
Discover: (v) to find out about sth; to find some information about sth.
America could finally discover that Binladen was somewhere here in Pakistan.
Exchange: (n) an act of giving sth to sb or doing sth for sb and receiving sth in return.
I don’t know why they exchanged their books for the first two weeks.
Inspect: (v) to look closely at sth/sb, especially to check that everything is satisfactory.
Remember that you will be at least inspected once at every gate.
Defective: (adj) having a fault or faults; not perfect or complete; FAULTY.
The device was proved to be defective after checking.
Impatient: (adj) annoyed by sb/sth, especially because you have to wait for a long time.
Don’t get impatient if you are told to wait for another one hour.
Ship: (v) to send or transport sb/sth by ship.
These baggages will cost you cheap if you ship them in Australia.
Enclose: (v) to build a wall, fence, etc. around sth.
This small beautiful garden is enclosed by fence.

Unit 28 (The Mary Cleste)
Axe: (n) a tool with a wooden handle and a heavy metal blade, used for cutting down trees, etc.
Axe is a dangerous tool.
Bloodstain: (n) a mark or spot of blood on sth.
We can find some bloodstains even after the dress is washed.
Bow: (v) to move your head or the top half of your body forwards and downwards as a sign of respect or as a greeting.
Chinese bow before their elders for the sake of respect.
Cabin: (n) a small room on a ship in which you live or sleep.
There is only one cabin left empty on a ship.
Cargo: (n) the goods carried in a ship or plane.
You can send your cargo every two days in a week.
Collision: (n) an accident in which two vehicles or people crash into each other.
As a result of collision between 30 people died.
Compass: (n) an instrument for finding direction, with a needle that always points to the north.
It is important to have a compass if you travel by sea.
Deck: (n) the top outside floor of a ship or boat.
You can use the deck for putting your bags.
Entry: (n) a space or passage inside the entrance or front door of a building.
Could you please tell me where the entry door is?
Investigation: (n) an official examination of the facts about a situation, crime, etc.
Police found out the criminals after a long investigation.
Logbook: (n) a document that records official details about a vehicle, especially a car, and its owner.
When I bought my bike, I was told not to lose the logbook.
Launch: (v) to put a ship or boat into the water, especially one that has just been built.
Iran has launched a new ship made with the help of China.
Notice: (v) to see or hear sb/sth; to become aware of sb/sth.
I noticed many things going on wrong during the semester.
Sink: (v) to damage a boat or ship so that it goes below the surface of the sea, etc.
Many ships carrying Afghans sank in the way from Indonesia to Australia.
Desert: (v) to leave sb without help or support; ABANDON.
She was deserted by her husband.
Official: (n) a person who is in a position of authority (the power to give orders) in a large organization.
We are proud of our officials working in different government offices.
Superstitious: (adj) believing in superstitions (the belief that particular events bring good or bad luck).
There are many superstitious beliefs that I am against of.
Wooden: (adj) made of wood.
Wooden chairs will cost you more than the iron ones.
Coast: (n) the land beside or near to the sea or ocean.
Our coasts can be good source of income if government pays attention on them.
Port: (n) a town or city with a harbor, especially one where ships load and unload goods.
Karachi Port is one of the world’s most famous commercial ports.
Salvage: (n) the act of saving things that have been, or are likely to be, damaged or lost, especially in a disaster or an accident.
We had an exhibition of salvage from the wreck.
Mystery: (n) something that is difficult to understand or to explain.
To know exactly how old our planet is, will remain a mystery forever.

Unit 29 (What Do You Think Happened?)
Barrel: (n) a large round container usually made of wood or metal, with flat ends and, usually, curved sides.
Two dollars have increased per barrel of petrol since yesterday.
Drill: (n) a tool or machine with a pointed end for making holes
Many drills were used for making this tube well successful.
Explosion: (n) the sudden violent bursting and loud noise of sth such as a bomb exploding.
We heard a loud explosion in the mourners’ procession heading towards mosque.
Gust: (n) a sudden strong increase in the amount and speed of wind that is blowing.
The wind changed into gust.
Hatch: (n) an opening or a door in the DECK of a ship.
There were many hatches through which we could see the beautiful scenery.
Monster: (n) an imaginary creature that is very large, ugly and frightening.
Have you ever seen any monster in your life?
Mutiny: (n) the act of refusing to obey the orders of sb in authority, especially by sailors.
What he did was considered mutiny by captain of the ship.
Octopus: (n) a sea creature with a soft round body and eight long TENTACLES (= long thin parts like arms).
Octopuses are found in the deep ocean.
Pirate: (n) (especially in the past) a person on a ship who attacks other ships at sea in order to steal from them.
The clash among the pirates left ten killed and twenty injured.
Rope: (n) very strong thick string made by twisting thinner strings, wires, etc. together.
We tied his hands together with rope.
Serpent: (n) a snake, especially a large one.
Serpent is a kind of snake considered very dangerous.
Shark: (n) a large sea fish with very sharp teeth.
Sharks get very dangerous when they are hungry.
Site: (n) a place where sth has happened or that is used for sth.
Quetta has changed to a site of murder.
Tornado: (n) a violent storm with very strong winds which move in a circle. There is often also a long cloud which is narrower at the bottom than the top.
Sometimes tornados could be very dangerous.
Drift: (n) a slow steady movement from one place to another.
Attempts are made to halt the drift from war.
Rescue: (n) to save sb/sth from a dangerous or harmful situation.
The rescue team could safe only a few people in the sea.
Row: (v) to move a boat through water using OARS (= long wooden poles with flat ends).
The pirates were rowing the boats around the ship.
Run down: to make sth lose power or stop working.
The pirates were trying to make the engine run down.
Steer: (v) to control the direction in which a boat, car, etc. moves.
They were steering our boat after the sailors’ death.
Tow: (v) to pull a car or boat behind another vehicle, using a rope or chain.
The engine of this car has ceased; we need to bring another car to tow it.
Giant: (adj) very large.
We were extremely scared of roaring a wild giant animal.
Infectious: (adj) an infectious disease can be passed easily from one person to another, especially through the air they breathe.
Diseases said to be infectious must be treated as soon as possible.
Overboard: (adv) over the side of a boat or a ship into the water.
Huge waves threw him overboard.
Panic: (v) to suddenly feel frightened so that you cannot think clearly and you say or do sth stupid.
The paramedics were told not to panic in critical situation of patients.
Revolt: (n) a protest against authority (the people or an organization who have the power to make decisions).
The revolt of millions of people against Saddam Hussain resulted in his conviction.

Unit 30 (Apologies)
Right of Way: the right to drive across on into a road before another vehicle.
He was fined because it wasn’t his right of way at the crossroads.
Apologize: (v) to say that you are sorry for doing sth wrong or causing a problem.
I apologize for what I did yesterday.
Stain: (n) a dirty mark on sth, that is difficult to remove
I want to buy utensils which do not get any stains.
Dumb: (adj) stupid.
I can’t bear hearing this dumb statement.
Realize: (v) to understand or become aware of a particular fact or situation.
General Pervez Musharrf realized his mistakes after he resigned from the position of army chief.
Brand-new: (adj) completely new.
Four dozen ministers in Balochistan Assembly were given brand new cars.
Check in: to leave bags or cases with an official to be put on a plane or train.
They were responsible for checking our luggage in.
Terribly: (adv) very.
After the program, our students were terribly tired.

Unit 31 (They Didn’t Stop to Tell Me!)
Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
1. Cab: (n) a __________________________________________.
2. Hijack: (v) _________________________________________.
3. Insurance: (n) ______________________________________.
4. Metropolitan: (n) ____________________________________.
5. Puddle: (n) _________________________________________.
6. Concentrate: (v) _____________________________________.
7. Actually: (adv) ______________________________________.
8. Definitely: (v) _______________________________________.
9. Delivery: (n) ________________________________________. 10.Dumb: (adj) ________________________________________.
Match the 10 words in Column I with the definition in Column II.
_____1. Proof a) to make sth lose power or stop working
_____2. Function b) new
_____3. Giant c) a dirty mark on sth, that is difficult to remove
_____4. Brand d) information that show that sth is true
_____5. Hatch e) an opening or a door in the DECK of a ship
_____6. Desert f) to leave sb without help or support
_____7. Coast. g) a snake, especially a large one
_____8. Serpent h) to work in the correct way
_____9. Stain j) the land beside or near to the sea or ocean
_____10. Run down k) very large
Make your own sentences for the given words below
1. Infectious: (adj)______________________________________.
2. Realize: (v)__________________________________________.
3. Tornado: (n)_________________________________________.
4. Monster: (n)_________________________________________.
5. Salvage: (n)_________________________________________.

Unit 32 (John Lennon 1940-1980)
Album:(n) a collection of pieces of music that have been recorded on one record, CD or cassette.
Dawood Sarkhosh is going to release his new album in January 2017.
Apartment building: (n) a large building with flats/apartments on each floor
The apartment building in which we lived almost for a year has been recently sold.
Appeal:(n) a formal request to a court of law or to sb in authority for a judgment or a decision to be changed.
There is one another appeal needed for the overview of the case.
Appearance: (n) the way that sb/sth looks on the outside; what sb/sth seems to be.
Do you think appearance matters for an applicant for the post of teaching?
Exhibit: (n) a collection of things, for example works of art, that are shown to the public
If you look at exhibit one, you will find many cultural pictures.
Autograph: (n) a famous person’s signature, especially when sb asks them to write it
We have kept autographs of our guests in a special notebook.
Tumor: (n) a mass of cells growing in or on a part of the body where they should not, usually cause medical problems.
Neurologist told us the main causes of tumor.
Affair (n) matters connected with a person’s private business and financial situation
It is none of your business to interfere in our financial affair.
Critic (n): a person who expresses opinions about the good and bad qualities of books, music, etc.
The Afghan film, Kabul Express found many critics right after its first show.
Entrance: (n) a door, gate, passage, etc. used for entering a room, building or place
The guests are requested to show their cards at the entrance.
Fantasy: (n) a pleasant situation that you imagine but that is unlikely to happen
I remember his childhood fantasies about becoming football player.
Coverage: (n) the reporting of news and sport in newspapers and on the radio and television
The funeral ceremony of Benazir was given life coverage.
Memorial: (n) a statue, stone, etc. that is built in order to remind people of an important past event or of a famous person who has died.
There are many memorials left behind Mongol emperor.
Overdose: (n) too much of a drug taken at one time
Doctor advised the patient to avoid overdose.
Performance: (n) how well or badly you do sth; how well or badly sth works
The children had a wonderful performance on the stage.
Tribute: (n) an act, a statement or a gift that is intended to show your respect or admiration, especially for a dead person
The visit of president Musharraf was a tribute to the ones martyred in the war against terror.
Break up: (v) to end a relationship, a company, etc
The conflict made them break up their friendship.
Feature: (n) a part of sb’s face such as their nose, mouth and eyes
He has to be careful because his feature resembles the man who is said to be wanted.
Hang around: to wait or stay near a place, not doing very much.
He seems suspicious as he is hanging around uselessly.
Induct: (v) to formally give sb a job or position of authority, especially as part of a ceremony.
Students of level advanced were inducted into arranging the program.
Rush: (v) to move or to do sth with great speed, often too fast.
My brother rushed home as soon as he heard that I was in trouble.
Avant-garde: (n) a group of artists, etc. who introduce new and very modern ideas
I felt satisfied when I met and talked to avant-grade.
Extensive: (adj.) covering a large area; great in amount
The extensive flood resulted in death of hundreds of people.
Massive: (adj.) very large, heavy and solid.
Massive missiles were dropped down on Japan during World War Second.

Unit 33 (Beach Watch)
Guy: (n) a man
He is the only guy I know in this picture.
Lifeguard: (n) a person who is employed at a beach or a swimming pool to rescue people who are in danger in the water
Lifeguard is responsible for what already has happened.
Pulse: (n) the regular beat of blood as it is pumped around the body, that can be felt in different places, especially on the inside part of the wrist; the number of times the blood beats in a minute
You can check your pulse by placing your index finger on the vein of your wrist.
Reward: (n) a thing that you are given because you have done sth good, worked hard, etc
The hard word has a reward after it.
Drown: (v) to die because you have been underwater too long and you cannot breathe; to kill sb in this way
The ones, who did not know how to swim, drowned in the water.
Turn around: (n) the amount of time it takes to unload a ship or plane at the end of one journey and load it again for the next one
Extra ten minutes in turn around resulted in collision of two more ships.

Unit 34 (Have you seen this ad?)
Ad: (n) a notice, picture or film telling people about a product, job or service.
Did you see our ad on newspaper?
Commission: (n) an amount of money that is paid to sb for selling goods and which increases with the amount of goods that are sold
In order to buy a house, you need to go to commission agency.
Enthusiasm: (n) a strong feeling of excitement and interest in sth and a desire to become involved in it
We should build up enthusiasm in our youths.
Self starter: (n) an active and effective person who is able to work on their own.
He is proved to be a self-starter because of his extraordinary talent.
Volunteer: (n) a person who does a job without being paid for it
There were thousands of volunteers in the war between India and Pakistan.
Provide: (v) to give sth to sb or make it available for them to use
Students must be provided their basic needs.
Ambition: (n) the desire or determination to be successful, rich, powerful, etc
He told me that his ambition was to get first position.
Expert: (n) a person with special knowledge, skill or training in sth
He is an expert in computer.
Negotiable: (adj) that you can discuss or change before you make an agreement or a decision
This is fully controversial issue. It can never be negotiable.
Statewide: (adj) happening or existing in all parts of a state of the US:
Anthrax was a statewide disease in 1990s.
Toll-free: (of a telephone call) paid for by the organization receiving it rather than the person making it.
The toll-free number is given at the bottom of the screen.
Generous: (adj) giving or willing to give freely; given freely
Majority of the rich people are very generous.
Mature: (adj) (of a child or young person) behaving in a sensible way, like an adult
He behaved in a mature way.
Overseas: (adj) connected with foreign countries, especially those separated from your country by the sea or ocean
Overseas visas are hard to get these days.

Unit 35 (Glacier Watch)
Crevasse: (n) a deep open crack, especially in ice, for example in a GLACIER
We can see some crevasses in the glacier.
Glacier: (n) a large mass of ice, formed by snow on mountains, that moves very slowly down a valley
The scientists are concerned about the melting of glaciers..
Global warming: (n) the increase in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, that is caused by the increase of particular gases.
Every year we can see that global warming increases.
Greenhouse gases: (n) any of the gases that are thought to cause the greenhouse effect, especially CARBONDIOXIDE
If greenhouse gasses are not controlled, they will result danger.
Guide: (v) to show sb the way to a place, often by going with them; to show sb a place that you know well
Teachers are to guide their children before they are sent to college level.
Research: (n) a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it
I had regular research on Islamic Ideology.
Tourist: (n) a person who is traveling or visiting a place for pleasure
These historical places will attract tourists from all over the world.
Valley: (n) an area of low land between hills or mountains, often with a river flowing through it; the land that a river flows through.
The beautiful valley of Ziarat is a recreational center for visitors.
Advance: (v) to move forward towards sb/sth, often in order to attack or threaten them or it
Hazara nation is rapidly advancing towards science and technology.
Retreat: (v) to move away from a place or an enemy because you are in danger or because you have been defeated
Our soldiers had always fought in the front line and had never retreated.
Inhibited: (adj) unable to relax or express your feelings in a natural way
We met many inhibited patients in Pakistan General Hospital.
Altogether: (adv.) completely; in every way
Musharraf wanted to altogether eradicate terrorism from Pakistan.

Unit 36 (What would you have done?)
Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
Burglary: (n) French fries: (n)Ketchup: (n) Sand: (n) Shopping-mall: (n)
Silverware: (n) Tinkle: (n) Beat up: Come over: Dip: (v) Sneak up: Embarrassed: (adj) Float: (v)

Unit 37 (A bad day at the office)
Newsstand: (n) a table or stall on a street or in a station where newspapers and sometimes magazines and books are sold.
To get newspapers, you must go to newsstand.
Typo: (n) a small mistake in a typed or printed text.
In order to avoid typo mistakes, you have to re check you passage.
Recognize: (v) to know who sb is or what sth is when you see or hear them, because you have seen or heard them or it before
I recognized him from his voice as he speaks very softly.
Come on: used to show that you know what somebody has said is not correct.
Come on! You must be in 3os.

Unit 38 (A Saturday afternoon)
Column: (n) a thing shaped like a column
Read the first column of this context then explain it.
Complexion: (n) the natural color and condition of the skin on a person’s face
There are many complexions in the world.
Flower bed: a piece of ground in a garden/yard or park where flowers are grown
There are many beautiful flowers in the flower bed.
Patient: (n) a person who is receiving medical treatment, especially in a hospital
Here are more than 105 patients in this hospital.
Burn down: to be destroyed, or to destroy sth, by fire
The fire was so massive that it burnt down everything in seconds.
Certify: (v) to state officially, especially in writing, that sth is true
The president certified his documents being original.
Pause: (n) a period of time during which sb stops talking or stops what they are doing; BREAK
Our teacher stressed on pause while delivering our lectures.
Curious: (adj) having a strong desire to know about sth
He was curious to know what had exactly happened.
Exclusive: (adj) only to be used by one particular person or group; only given to one particular person or group
It has exclusive right to televise the World Cup.
Gentle: (adj) calm and kind; doing things in a quiet and careful way
He had a gentle way of getting through the activities.
Insane: (adj) seriously mentally ill and unable to live in normal society
He was considered to be insane after his eccentric behavior.
Mild-mannered (adj) having the type of manners not sever or harsh.
He was upgraded because he had mild-mannered personality.
Mysterious: (adj) difficult to understand or explain; strange
The origin of life on Earth is mysterious for man.
Sterile: (adj) completely clean and free from bacteria.
You must use sterile bandages on this wound.
Withdrawn: (adj) not wanting to talk to other people; extremely quiet and shy
She seems to be withdrawn from all the affairs of the Society.

Unit 39 (Vacation USA)
Assignment: Look the given words up in the dictionary, and take the definitions down:
Cable car: (n) Canyon: (n) Glamour: (n) Glitter: (v) Spree: (n) Look forward to: Escort: (v) Spectacular: (n) Steep: (adj) Spa: (n) Spacious: (adj) Gambling: (n) Atmosphere: (n) Treatment: (n) Overnight: (adv)

Unit 40 (Food for thought)
Nutritious (Adj) very good for you; containing many of the useful substances.
They had prepared very tasty and nutritious meals.
Range (N) a variety of things of a particular type.
The hotel offers a wide range of facilities.
Taboo (N, Adj) a cultural or religious custom that does not allow people to do.
Wine is one of the great taboos in our religion.
Eccentric (N, Adj) Use or talk about a particular thing as people find it offensive or embarrassing.
Most people considered him a harmless eccentric.
Banquet (N) considered by other people to be strange or unusual a large impressive meal.
A state banquet in honor of the visiting President.
Brain (V, N) the organ inside the head that controls movement, thought, memory and feeling.
Teachers spotted that he had a good brain at an early age.
Scarce (Adv, Adj) When there is not enough of it and it is only available in small.
I could see he was annoyed so I made myself scare.
Quantities (Adj) available or existing in large amounts or numbers, Plentiful.
The product is cheap to produce in large quantities.
Starving (V) to suffer or die because you do not have enough food to eat.
When’s the food coming? I’m starving.
Cattle (N) cows that are kept as farm animals for their milk or meat.
The prisoners were herded into trucks like cattle.
Appetizers (N) a small amount of food that is served before the main course of a meal.
She prepared a tasty appetizer with some green olives.
Poison (V, N) a substance that causes death or harm if it is swallowed or absorbed into the body.
How did he die? Was it poison?

The End!

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