Grammar

How to Change a Verb Into 2nd and 3rd Form?

You might know that  verb is the most significant part of a sentence which shows an action, state/ possession, presence or absence of a person or thing in a sentence. We talked about action verbs, in this article we will look at regular and irregular verbs, or how to change regular and irregular verbs into past and past participle forms? Indeed action verbs are subdivided into two groups “regular verbs and irregular verbs” on the basis of how their past tense and Past tense and past participle are formed.

How to Change Regular and Irregular Verbs Into Past and Past Participle?

Regular and Irregular verbs
1. Regular Verbs
Regular verbs are those verbs whose past tense and past participle (2nd and 3rd forms) are formed by adding “d” or “ed” to the end of the verb.
2. Irregular verbs
Irregular verbs are those verbs that do not take ‘ed’ ending for their past tense and past participle (2nd and 3rd forms).

Regular verbs “some rules.”

1. Regular verbs ending in a silent “e” take “d” in the simple past and past participle.
Sharesharedshared
Scarescaredscared
Hatehatedhated
2.  Few Irregular verbs ending in a vowel then  “-e” take “-d” in the simple past and past participle.
Skiskiedskied
EchoEchoedEchoed
3. Regular verbs ending in a “vowel +y” take “ed” in the simple past and past participle.
Playplayedplayed
Surveysurveyedsurveyed
Enjoyenjoyedenjoyed
4. Regular verbs ending in a “consonant +y” change –y to I and add ‘ed’ for simple past and past participle.
Crycriedcried
Trytriedtried
5. Regular verbs ending in a consonant after a stressed vowel double the consonant before adding “ed” , if the vowel is not stressed, we do not double it.
Stopstoppedstopped
Banbannedbanned
Clapclappedclapped
Openopenedopened

List of irregular verbs in English
Irregular verbs do not take ‘ed’ ending for their past and past participle (2nd and 3rd forms), study the list of  irregular verbs in English below.

1st Form (Infinitive)2nd Form (Simple Past)3rd Form (Past Participle)
A
arisearosearisen
awakeawakened / awokeawakened / awoken
B
backslidebackslidbackslidden / backslid
bewas, werebeen
bearboreborn / borne
beatbeatbeaten / beat
becomebecamebecome
beginbeganbegun
bendbentbent
betbet / bettedbet / betted 
bid bid / badebidden
bid bidbid
bindboundbound
bitebitbitten
bleedbledbled
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
breedbredbred
bringbroughtbrought
broadcastbroadcast / broadcastedbroadcast / broadcasted
browbeatbrowbeatbrowbeaten / browbeat
buildbuiltbuilt
burnburned / burnt burned / burnt 
burstburstburst
bustbusted / bustbusted / bust
buyboughtbought
C
castcastcast
catchcaughtcaught
choosechosechosen
clingclungclung
clotheclothed / clad clothed / clad 
comecamecome
costcostcost
creepcreptcrept
crossbreedcrossbredcrossbred
cutcutcut
D
daydreamdaydreamed / daydreamt daydreamed / daydreamt 
dealdealtdealt
digdugdug
disprovedisproveddisproved / disproven
dive dove / diveddived
divedived / dovedived
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
dreamdreamed / dreamtdreamed / dreamt 
drinkdrankdrunk
drivedrovedriven
dwelldwelt / dwelled dwelt / dwelled 
E
eatateeaten
F
fallfellfallen
feedfedfed
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
fit fitted / fit fitted / fit 
fit (be right size)fit / fitted fit / fitted 
fleefledfled
flingflungflung
flyflewflown
forbidforbadeforbidden
forecastforecastforecast
forego (also forgo)forewentforegone
foreseeforesawforeseen
foretellforetoldforetold
forgetforgotforgotten / forgot
forgiveforgaveforgiven
forsakeforsookforsaken
freezefrozefrozen
frostbitefrostbitfrostbitten
G
getgotgotten / got 
givegavegiven
gowentgone
grindgroundground
growgrewgrown
H
hand-feedhand-fedhand-fed
handwritehandwrotehandwritten
hanghunghung
havehadhad
hearheardheard
hewhewedhewn / hewed
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheldheld
hurthurthurt
I
inbreedinbredinbred
inlayinlaidinlaid
inputinput / inputtedinput / inputted
interbreedinterbredinterbred
interweaveinterwove / interweavedinterwoven / interweaved
interwindinterwoundinterwound
J
jerry-buildjerry-builtjerry-built
K
keepkeptkept
kneelknelt / kneeledknelt / kneeled
knitknitted / knitknitted / knit
knowknewknown
L
laylaidlaid
leadledled
leanleaned / leant leaned / leant
leapleaped / leapt leaped / leapt 
learnlearned / learnt learned / learnt 
leaveleftleft
lendlentlent
letletlet
lielaylain
lie liedlied
lightlit / lightedlit / lighted
lip-readlip-readlip-read
loselostlost
M
makemademade
meanmeantmeant
meetmetmet
miscastmiscastmiscast
misdealmisdealtmisdealt
misdomisdidmisdone
mishearmisheardmisheard
mislaymislaidmislaid
misleadmisledmisled
mislearnmislearned / mislearnt mislearned / mislearnt 
misreadmisreadmisread
missetmissetmisset
misspeakmisspokemisspoken
misspellmisspelled / misspelt misspelled / misspelt 
misspendmisspentmisspent
mistakemistookmistaken
misteachmistaughtmistaught
misunderstandmisunderstoodmisunderstood
miswritemiswrotemiswritten
mowmowedmowed / mown
N
No irregular verbs beginning with “N.”
O
offsetoffsetoffset
outbidoutbidoutbid
outbreedoutbredoutbred
outdooutdidoutdone
outdrawoutdrewoutdrawn
outdrinkoutdrankoutdrunk
outdriveoutdroveoutdriven
outfightoutfoughtoutfought
outflyoutflewoutflown
outgrowoutgrewoutgrown
outleapoutleaped / outleaptoutleaped / outleapt 
outlie outliedoutlied
outrideoutrodeoutridden
outrunoutranoutrun
outselloutsoldoutsold
outshineoutshined / outshone outshined / outshone 
outshootoutshotoutshot
outsingoutsangoutsung
outsitoutsatoutsat
outsleepoutsleptoutslept
outsmelloutsmelled / outsmelt outsmelled / outsmelt
outspeakoutspokeoutspoken
outspeedoutspedoutsped
outspendoutspentoutspent
outswearoutsworeoutsworn
outswimoutswamoutswum
outthinkoutthoughtoutthought
outthrowoutthrewoutthrown
outwriteoutwroteoutwritten
overbidoverbidoverbid
overbreedoverbredoverbred
overbuildoverbuiltoverbuilt
overbuyoverboughtoverbought
overcomeovercameovercome
overdooverdidoverdone
overdrawoverdrewoverdrawn
overdrinkoverdrankoverdrunk
overeatoverateovereaten
overfeedoverfedoverfed
overhangoverhungoverhung
overhearoverheardoverheard
overlayoverlaidoverlaid
overpayoverpaidoverpaid
overrideoverrodeoverridden
overrunoverranoverrun
overseeoversawoverseen
overselloversoldoversold
oversewoversewedoversewn / oversewed
overshootovershotovershot
oversleepoversleptoverslept
overspeakoverspokeoverspoken
overspendoverspentoverspent
overspilloverspilled / overspilt overspilled / overspilt 
overtakeovertookovertaken
overthinkoverthoughtoverthought
overthrowoverthrewoverthrown
overwindoverwoundoverwound
overwriteoverwroteoverwritten
P
partakepartookpartaken
paypaidpaid
pleadpleaded / pledpleaded / pled
prebuildprebuiltprebuilt
predopredidpredone
premakepremadepremade
prepayprepaidprepaid
presellpresoldpresold
presetpresetpreset
preshrinkpreshrankpreshrunk
proofreadproofreadproofread
proveprovedproven / proved
putputput
Q
quick-freezequick-frozequick-frozen
quitquit / quitted quit / quitted 
R
readread (sounds like “red”)read (sounds like “red”)
reawakereawokereawaken
rebidrebidrebid
rebindreboundrebound
rebroadcastrebroadcast / rebroadcastedrebroadcast / rebroadcasted
rebuildrebuiltrebuilt
recastrecastrecast
recutrecutrecut
redealredealtredealt
redoredidredone
redrawredrewredrawn
refit (replace parts)refit / refittedrefit / refitted
refit (retailor)refitted / refit refitted / refit 
regrindregroundreground
regrowregrewregrown
rehangrehungrehung
rehearreheardreheard
reknitreknitted / reknitreknitted / reknit
relay relaidrelaid
relay relayedrelayed
relearnrelearned / relearnt relearned / relearnt 
relightrelit / relightedrelit / relighted
remakeremaderemade
repayrepaidrepaid
rereadrereadreread
rerunreranrerun
resellresoldresold
resendresentresent
resetresetreset
resewresewedresewn / resewed
retakeretookretaken
reteachretaughtretaught
retearretoreretorn
retellretoldretold
rethinkrethoughtrethought
retreadretreadretread
retrofitretrofitted / retrofit retrofitted / retrofit 
rewakerewoke / rewakedrewaken / rewaked
rewearreworereworn
reweaverewove / reweavedrewoven / reweaved
rewedrewed / reweddedrewed / rewedded
rewetrewet / rewetted rewet / rewetted 
rewinrewonrewon
rewindrewoundrewound
rewriterewroterewritten
ridridrid
rideroderidden
ringrangrung
riseroserisen
roughcastroughcastroughcast
runranrun
S
sand-castsand-castsand-cast
sawsawedsawed / sawn
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
seeksoughtsought
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
setsetset
sewsewedsewn / sewed
shakeshookshaken
shaveshavedshaved / shaven
shearshearedsheared / shorn
shedshedshed
shineshined / shone shined / shone 
shitshit / shat / shittedshit/ shat / shitted
shootshotshot
showshowedshown / showed
shrinkshrank / shrunkshrunk
shutshutshut
sight-readsight-readsight-read
singsangsung
sinksank / sunksunk
sitsatsat
slay slew / slayedslain / slayed
slay slayedslayed
sleepsleptslept
slideslidslid
slingslungslung
slinkslinked / slunkslinked / slunk
slitslitslit
smellsmelled / smelt smelled / smelt 
sneaksneaked / snucksneaked / snuck
sowsowedsown / sowed
speakspokespoken
speedsped / speededsped / speeded
spellspelled / spelt spelled / spelt 
spendspentspent
spillspilled / spilt spilled / spilt 
spinspunspun
spitspit / spatspit / spat
splitsplitsplit
spoilspoiled / spoilt spoiled / spoilt 
spoon-feedspoon-fedspoon-fed
spreadspreadspread
springsprang / sprungsprung
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
stickstuckstuck
stingstungstung
stinkstunk / stankstunk
strewstrewedstrewn / strewed
stridestrodestridden
strike (delete)struckstricken
strike (hit)struckstruck / stricken
stringstrungstrung
strivestrove / strivedstriven / strived
subletsubletsublet
sunburnsunburned / sunburnt sunburned / sunburnt
swearsworesworn
sweatsweat / sweatedsweat / sweated
sweepsweptswept
swellswelledswollen / swelled
swimswamswum
swingswungswung
T
taketooktaken
teachtaughttaught
teartoretorn
telecasttelecasttelecast
telltoldtold
test-drivetest-drovetest-driven
test-flytest-flewtest-flown
thinkthoughtthought
throwthrewthrown
thrustthrustthrust
treadtrodtrodden / trod
typecasttypecasttypecast
typesettypesettypeset
typewritetypewrotetypewritten
U
unbendunbentunbent
unbindunboundunbound
unclotheunclothed / unclad unclothed / unclad 
underbidunderbidunderbid
undercutundercutundercut
underfeedunderfedunderfed
undergounderwentundergone
underlieunderlayunderlain
undersellundersoldundersold
underspendunderspentunderspent
understandunderstoodunderstood
undertakeundertookundertaken
underwriteunderwroteunderwritten
undoundidundone
unfreezeunfrozeunfrozen
unhangunhungunhung
unhideunhidunhidden
unknitunknitted / unknitunknitted / unknit
unlearnunlearned / unlearnt unlearned / unlearnt 
unsewunsewedunsewn / unsewed
unslingunslungunslung
unspinunspununspun
unstickunstuckunstuck
unstringunstrungunstrung
unweaveunwove / unweavedunwoven / unweaved
unwindunwoundunwound
upholdupheldupheld
upsetupsetupset
V
No commonly used irregular verbs beginning with “V.”
W
wakewoke / wakedwoken / waked
waylaywaylaidwaylaid
wearworeworn
weavewove / weavedwoven / weaved
wedwed / weddedwed / wedded
weepweptwept
wetwet / wetted wet / wetted 
whet  REGULARwhettedwhetted
winwonwon
windwoundwound
withdrawwithdrewwithdrawn
withholdwithheldwithheld
withstandwithstoodwithstood
wringwrungwrung
writewrotewritten
X
No irregular verbs beginning with “X.”
Y
No irregular verbs beginning with “Y.”
Z
No irregular verbs beginning with “Z.”


Studying about the rules how to change regular and irregular verbs into past and past participle is quite compulsory for ESL learners, because both in written and spoken you have to know about these rules in order to construct your sentences accurately.

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2 comments

Eternalion September 14, 2018 at 2:32 pm

Helpful article thank you.

Reply
BISMO September 14, 2018 at 5:46 pm

Welcome dear, hope it was useful.

Reply

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