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How to Change a Verb Into 2nd and 3rd Form?

You might know that  verb is the most significant part of a sentence which shows an action, state/ possession, presence or absence of a person or thing in a sentence. We talked about action verbs, in this article we will look at regular and irregular verbs, or how to change regular and irregular verbs into past and past participle forms? Indeed action verbs are subdivided into two groups “regular verbs and irregular verbs” on the basis of how their past tense and Past tense and past participle are formed.

How to Change Regular and Irregular Verbs Into Past and Past Participle?

Regular and Irregular verbs
1. Regular Verbs
Regular verbs are those verbs whose past tense and past participle (2nd and 3rd forms) are formed by adding “d” or “ed” to the end of the verb.
2. Irregular verbs
Irregular verbs are those verbs that do not take ‘ed’ ending for their past tense and past participle (2nd and 3rd forms).

Regular verbs “some rules.”

1. Regular verbs ending in a silent “e” take “d” in the simple past and past participle.
Share shared shared
Scare scared scared
Hate hated hated
2.  Few Irregular verbs ending in a vowel then  “-e” take “-d” in the simple past and past participle.
Ski skied skied
Echo Echoed Echoed
3. Regular verbs ending in a “vowel +y” take “ed” in the simple past and past participle.
Play played played
Survey surveyed surveyed
Enjoy enjoyed enjoyed
4. Regular verbs ending in a “consonant +y” change –y to I and add ‘ed’ for simple past and past participle.
Cry cried cried
Try tried tried
5. Regular verbs ending in a consonant after a stressed vowel double the consonant before adding “ed” , if the vowel is not stressed, we do not double it.
Stop stopped stopped
Ban banned banned
Clap clapped clapped
Open opened opened

List of irregular verbs in English
Irregular verbs do not take ‘ed’ ending for their past and past participle (2nd and 3rd forms), study the list of  irregular verbs in English below.

1st Form (Infinitive) 2nd Form (Simple Past) 3rd Form (Past Participle)
arise arose arisen
awake awakened / awoke awakened / awoken
backslide backslid backslidden / backslid
be was, were been
bear bore born / borne
beat beat beaten / beat
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet / betted bet / betted 
bid  bid / bade bidden
bid  bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast / broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted
browbeat browbeat browbeaten / browbeat
build built built
burn burned / burnt  burned / burnt 
burst burst burst
bust busted / bust busted / bust
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
clothe clothed / clad  clothed / clad 
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crossbreed crossbred crossbred
cut cut cut
daydream daydreamed / daydreamt  daydreamed / daydreamt 
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
disprove disproved disproved / disproven
dive  dove / dived dived
dive dived / dove dived
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed / dreamt dreamed / dreamt 
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt / dwelled  dwelt / dwelled 
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fit  fitted / fit  fitted / fit 
fit (be right size) fit / fitted  fit / fitted 
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forecast forecast forecast
forego (also forgo) forewent foregone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten / forgot
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen
frostbite frostbit frostbitten
get got gotten / got 
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed
handwrite handwrote handwritten
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hew hewed hewn / hewed
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
inbreed inbred inbred
inlay inlaid inlaid
input input / inputted input / inputted
interbreed interbred interbred
interweave interwove / interweaved interwoven / interweaved
interwind interwound interwound
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built
keep kept kept
kneel knelt / kneeled knelt / kneeled
knit knitted / knit knitted / knit
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned / leant  leaned / leant
leap leaped / leapt  leaped / leapt 
learn learned / learnt  learned / learnt 
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
lie  lied lied
light lit / lighted lit / lighted
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
miscast miscast miscast
misdeal misdealt misdealt
misdo misdid misdone
mishear misheard misheard
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
mislearn mislearned / mislearnt  mislearned / mislearnt 
misread misread misread
misset misset misset
misspeak misspoke misspoken
misspell misspelled / misspelt  misspelled / misspelt 
misspend misspent misspent
mistake mistook mistaken
misteach mistaught mistaught
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
miswrite miswrote miswritten
mow mowed mowed / mown
No irregular verbs beginning with “N.”
offset offset offset
outbid outbid outbid
outbreed outbred outbred
outdo outdid outdone
outdraw outdrew outdrawn
outdrink outdrank outdrunk
outdrive outdrove outdriven
outfight outfought outfought
outfly outflew outflown
outgrow outgrew outgrown
outleap outleaped / outleapt outleaped / outleapt 
outlie  outlied outlied
outride outrode outridden
outrun outran outrun
outsell outsold outsold
outshine outshined / outshone  outshined / outshone 
outshoot outshot outshot
outsing outsang outsung
outsit outsat outsat
outsleep outslept outslept
outsmell outsmelled / outsmelt  outsmelled / outsmelt
outspeak outspoke outspoken
outspeed outsped outsped
outspend outspent outspent
outswear outswore outsworn
outswim outswam outswum
outthink outthought outthought
outthrow outthrew outthrown
outwrite outwrote outwritten
overbid overbid overbid
overbreed overbred overbred
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt
overbuy overbought overbought
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overdrink overdrank overdrunk
overeat overate overeaten
overfeed overfed overfed
overhang overhung overhung
overhear overheard overheard
overlay overlaid overlaid
overpay overpaid overpaid
override overrode overridden
overrun overran overrun
oversee oversaw overseen
oversell oversold oversold
oversew oversewed oversewn / oversewed
overshoot overshot overshot
oversleep overslept overslept
overspeak overspoke overspoken
overspend overspent overspent
overspill overspilled / overspilt  overspilled / overspilt 
overtake overtook overtaken
overthink overthought overthought
overthrow overthrew overthrown
overwind overwound overwound
overwrite overwrote overwritten
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
plead pleaded / pled pleaded / pled
prebuild prebuilt prebuilt
predo predid predone
premake premade premade
prepay prepaid prepaid
presell presold presold
preset preset preset
preshrink preshrank preshrunk
proofread proofread proofread
prove proved proven / proved
put put put
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen
quit quit / quitted  quit / quitted 
read read (sounds like “red”) read (sounds like “red”)
reawake reawoke reawaken
rebid rebid rebid
rebind rebound rebound
rebroadcast rebroadcast / rebroadcasted rebroadcast / rebroadcasted
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
recast recast recast
recut recut recut
redeal redealt redealt
redo redid redone
redraw redrew redrawn
refit (replace parts) refit / refitted refit / refitted
refit (retailor) refitted / refit  refitted / refit 
regrind reground reground
regrow regrew regrown
rehang rehung rehung
rehear reheard reheard
reknit reknitted / reknit reknitted / reknit
relay  relaid relaid
relay  relayed relayed
relearn relearned / relearnt  relearned / relearnt 
relight relit / relighted relit / relighted
remake remade remade
repay repaid repaid
reread reread reread
rerun reran rerun
resell resold resold
resend resent resent
reset reset reset
resew resewed resewn / resewed
retake retook retaken
reteach retaught retaught
retear retore retorn
retell retold retold
rethink rethought rethought
retread retread retread
retrofit retrofitted / retrofit  retrofitted / retrofit 
rewake rewoke / rewaked rewaken / rewaked
rewear rewore reworn
reweave rewove / reweaved rewoven / reweaved
rewed rewed / rewedded rewed / rewedded
rewet rewet / rewetted  rewet / rewetted 
rewin rewon rewon
rewind rewound rewound
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
roughcast roughcast roughcast
run ran run
sand-cast sand-cast sand-cast
saw sawed sawed / sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn / sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved / shaven
shear sheared sheared / shorn
shed shed shed
shine shined / shone  shined / shone 
shoot shot shot
show showed shown / showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk
shut shut shut
sight-read sight-read sight-read
sing sang sung
sink sank / sunk sunk
sit sat sat
slay  slew / slayed slain / slayed
slay  slayed slayed
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slinked / slunk slinked / slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelled / smelt  smelled / smelt 
sneak sneaked / snuck sneaked / snuck
sow sowed sown / sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped / speeded sped / speeded
spell spelled / spelt  spelled / spelt 
spend spent spent
spill spilled / spilt  spilled / spilt 
spin spun spun
spit spit / spat spit / spat
split split split
spoil spoiled / spoilt  spoiled / spoilt 
spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed
spread spread spread
spring sprang / sprung sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stunk / stank stunk
strew strewed strewn / strewed
stride strode stridden
strike (delete) struck stricken
strike (hit) struck struck / stricken
string strung strung
strive strove / strived striven / strived
sublet sublet sublet
sunburn sunburned / sunburnt  sunburned / sunburnt
swear swore sworn
sweat sweat / sweated sweat / sweated
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen / swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
telecast telecast telecast
tell told told
test-drive test-drove test-driven
test-fly test-flew test-flown
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden / trod
typecast typecast typecast
typeset typeset typeset
typewrite typewrote typewritten
unbend unbent unbent
unbind unbound unbound
unclothe unclothed / unclad  unclothed / unclad 
underbid underbid underbid
undercut undercut undercut
underfeed underfed underfed
undergo underwent undergone
underlie underlay underlain
undersell undersold undersold
underspend underspent underspent
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
unhang unhung unhung
unhide unhid unhidden
unknit unknitted / unknit unknitted / unknit
unlearn unlearned / unlearnt  unlearned / unlearnt 
unsew unsewed unsewn / unsewed
unsling unslung unslung
unspin unspun unspun
unstick unstuck unstuck
unstring unstrung unstrung
unweave unwove / unweaved unwoven / unweaved
unwind unwound unwound
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
No commonly used irregular verbs beginning with “V.”
wake woke / waked woken / waked
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove / weaved woven / weaved
wed wed / wedded wed / wedded
weep wept wept
wet wet / wetted  wet / wetted 
whet  REGULAR whetted whetted
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
No irregular verbs beginning with “X.”
No irregular verbs beginning with “Y.”
No irregular verbs beginning with “Z.”

Studying about the rules how to change regular and irregular verbs into past and past participle is quite compulsory for ESL learners, because both in written and spoken you have to know about these rules in order to construct your sentences accurately.

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Eternalion September 14, 2018 at 2:32 pm

Helpful article thank you.

BISMO September 14, 2018 at 5:46 pm

Welcome dear, hope it was useful.


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