Grammar

Direct and Indirect of Simple Past Tense

Direct and Indirect of Simple Past Tense
Direct and Indirect of Simple Past Tense


We talked about direct and indirect speech of present tenses. We learned how to convey a message of present tenses to someone. In the article below we are going to elaborate direct and indirect of simple past tense. You will learn how to transmit a message what someone said, thought or felt in simple past tense.

For direct and indirect speech complete rules click: Direct and indirect speech complete rules

Direct and Indirect of Simple Past Tense

Tense Chang:
As a rule, when we convey a message from direct speech we go one tense back, therefore when we convey a message from simple past tense, we change the tense into past perfect tense.

Affirmatives

  • Direct speech: RP +, + S + V2 + ROTS
    He said to him, “I went to Texas yesterday.”
  • Indirect speech: RP + that + S + had + V3 + ROTS
    He told him that he had come to Texas the day before.

With to be verbs

  • Direct speech: RP +, + S + be2 + ROTS
    He said, “I was angry this morning.”
  • Indirect speech: RP + that +S + had been + ROTS
    He told me that he had been angry that morning.

Negatives

  • Direct speech: RP +, + S + did not + V1 + ROTS
    He said to his wife, “We didn`t clean the kitchen properly this morning.”
  • Indirect speech: RP + that + S + had not + V3 + ROTS
    He told his wife that they hadn’t cleaned the kitchen properly that morning.

Interrogatives

  • Direct speech: RP +, + did + S + V1 + ROTS
    She asked, “Did you buy the lap top for me?”
  • Indirect speech: RP + if + had + V3 + ROTS
    She asked me if I had bought the lap top for her.

Negative interrogatives

  • Direct speech: RP +, + Did not + S + V1 + ROTS
    He asked, “Didn’t you sleep well last night?”
  • Indirect speech: RP + if + had not + V3 + ROTS
    He asked me if I hadn’t slept well the night before.

WH/Information question

  • Direct speech: RP +, + WH + did + S + V1 + ROTS
    He asked, “When did she start learning English at Learn ESL?”
  • Indirect speech: RP + WH + S + had + V3 + ROTS
    He wanted to know when she had started learning English at Learn ESL.

Check out Direct and Indirect Speech Exercises With Answers

If you would like to know more about direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech, check out more in the given links below.

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