What is a sentence?
In grammar, a sentence is the basic grammatical unit. It contains a group of words and expresses a complete thought.
To Comprehend kinds of sentences according to Its purpose and structure, sentences are categorized in two ways:
1. By purpose.
2. By structure
English Sentence Structure and Purpose
Kinds Of Sentences By Purpose:
Here are five kinds of sentences by purpose.
- Assertive or declarative sentences
- Interrogative sentences
- Imperative sentences
- Exclamatory sentences
- Optative sentences
1. Assertive sentences
Sentences which make simple assertions or statements are called assertive or declarative sentences.
- It is raining.
- The child is going to school.
- I get up early in the morning.
- I like reading.
Note: Assertive or declarative sentences may be positive (affirmative) or negative. Sentences which give a positive or affirmative sense are called affirmative sentences.
- Honesty is the best policy.
- Barking dogs seldom bite.
- I have been to Canada.
Sentences which give a negative meaning are called negative sentences.
- She will not listen to me.
- She should not hate anybody.
2. Interrogative sentences
Sentences which ask questions are called interrogative sentences.
- What is your name?
- Where do you live?
- Who is your father?
3. Imperative sentences
Sentences which express orders, commands, requests, advice, proposals or suggestions are called imperative sentences.
- Leave this place at once. (Order)
- Get lost. (Order)
- Please help me. (Request)
- Work hard. (Advice)
- Let’s go for a walk. (Suggestion)
4. Exclamatory sentences
Sentences which express some strong feelings or emotions such as joy, sorrow, regret, surprise, wonder etc., are called exclamatory sentences.
- What a marvelous sight!
- How beautiful the flower is!
- Hurrah! We have won.
- Alas! She is no more.
5. Optative sentences
Sentences which express an ardent wish, prayer, curse etc., are called optative sentences.
- May you live long!
- May God help you!
Kinds Of Sentences By Structure:
A sentence can be simple, compound, complex or compound complex.
One way to categorize sentences is by the clauses they contain. (A clause is a part of a sentence containing a subject and a predicate.)
1. Simple: Contains a single, independent clause.
- I don’t like dogs.
- Our school basketball team lost their last game of the season 75-68.
2. Compound: Contains two independent clauses that are joined by a coordinating conjunction.
(The most common coordinating conjunctions are:but, or, and, so.)
- I don’t like dogs, and my sister doesn’t like cats.
- You can write on paper, or you can use a computer.
3. Complex: Contains an independent clause plus one or more dependent clauses.
(A dependent clause starts with a subordinating conjunction. Examples: that, because, while, although, where, if.)
- I don’t like dogs that bark at me when I go past.
- She did my homework, while her father cooked dinner.
4. Compound-complex: Contains 3 or more clauses (of which at least two are independent and one is dependent).
- I don’t like dogs, and my sister doesn’t like cats because they make her sneeze.
- You can write on paper, but using a computer is better as you can easily correct your mistakes.