Grammar

Reduction of Adverb Clause to a Modifying Phrase

Adverb Clause

What is an Adverb Clause?

An adverb clause is used to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb that comes in the main clause in a complex sentence. It is also called dependent clause or subordinate clause because it starts with a subordinating conjunction and cannot stand alone.
Modifying a verb:

  • I will be waiting here until you come back.
  • I had watched a movie before he called me.

Modifying an Adjective:

  • The weather is cold in Norway, although the winter has gone.
  • He looks happy, despite having many problems in his life.

Modifying an adverb:

  • They don`t work honestly in spite of the fact that the company has given them a lot of privileges.
  • Drive slowly and carefully even if you are in a hurry.

The Kinds of adverb Clause

1- Adverb clause of time
2- Adverb clause of cause/reason
3- Adverb clause of purpose
4- Adverb clause of supposition or concession
5- Adverb clause of condition
6- Adverb clause of place
7- Adverb clause of comparison

Reduction of Adverb Clause to a Modifying Phrase

Now you know what an adverb clause is. Its time to know how to reduce an adverb clause to a modifying phrase when the subjects of both the main clause and adverb clause are the same.

Note: A modifying phrase functions like modifiers, they are used to describe something or someone. 
While:

  • While he was coming to the academy, he ran into an old friend.
  • While coming to the academy, he ran into an old friend.
  • Coming to the academy, he ran in to an old friend.

Before:

  • Before we joined Learn ESL, we had to take an entry test.
  • Before joining Learn ESL, we had to take an entry test.

After:

  • After I finished my homework, I decided to watch a movie.
  • After finishing my homework, I decided to watch a movie.

Since:

  • Since she came to Texas, she has met many American ladies in USA.
  • Since coming to Texas, she has met many American ladies in USA.

Because:

  • Because she needed to improve her English, she decided to join Learn ESL.
  • Needing to improve her English, she decided to join Learn ESL.
  • Because he was unable to pass the test, he couldn`t get the scholarship.
  • Being unable to pass the test, he couldn’t get the scholarship.

Upon/On:

  • When I got to the zoo, I saw my teachers with their little son, Hameed Jan.
  • Upon/on getting to the zoo, I saw my teachers with their little son, Zepher Ali Jan.
  • When he went to sleep last night, he saw Prophet Mohammad in his dream.
  • Upon/On going to sleep last night, he saw Prophet Mohammad in his dream.

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